What is Line?

Line is a solver for queueing network models based on ordinary differential equations.

  • LINE can be integrated with Palladio Bench for performance analysis of Palladio Component Models (PCM).
  • LINE can load Layered Queueing Network models in the LQNS (XML) format.
  • LINE can load business process models in BPMN format and evaluate their performance.

Compared to existing performance analyzers for layered models:

  • LINE can compute percentiles of response times, which are important for service-level agreement (SLA) assessment.
  • LINE can describe uncertainty about an operational environment using a modeling abstraction known as random environment. For example, it is possible to express failure rates of resources using phase-type distributions.
  • LINE is especially efficient for use in numerical optimization, thanks to parallel, batch and client-server execution modes.

Download the Latest Release (1.0.0)

LINE 1.0.0 can be downloaded from the Download section. This version can be used with Palladio Bench and SPACE4Cloud. See the details in the Releases section.

Previous versions can be be downloaded here.

Installation Instructions and Documentation

The main documentation of LINE, including installation instructions, can be found here. You may also find useful to look at the Resources section, where you can find papers that describe in detail the models underlying Line as well as papers extending or using Line for different applications.

License

LINE is freely distributed under the open-source BSD New (also known as 3-Clause BSD) license.

How to cite Line

If you use LINE, please cite the following article:

J. F. Pérez and G. Casale, "Assessing SLA compliance from Palladio component models", in Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Management of resources and services in Cloud and Sky computing (MICAS), IEEE Press, 2013. [IEEE Xplore]

Support

The development of LINE has been partially funded by the European Commission grant FP7-318484 (MODAClouds) and by the EPSRC grant EP/M009211/1 (OptiMAM).

MODAClouds

Download

Download the latest version: LINE 1.0.0 (June 2016)

This version can be used with Palladio Bench and SPACE4Cloud.

Getting Started

Download the binaries and/or source code:

The download includes the LINE binaries, example files ready to test, and a test client to communicate with the LINE server. The binaries, for both Windows 64 bits and Linux 64 bits, require MATLAB MCR version 2013a, which can be downloaded here. You can run a simple test using the configuration and test files provided with the binary distribution.

Documentation and installation instructions can be found here.

Alternatively, download it from the SVN repository at

svn checkout svn://svn.code.sf.net/p/line-solver/code/trunk/releases/v100

What's new?

  • Line now offers support for both synchronous and asynchronous calls. This is achieved by extending the transformation from LQN models to incorporate asynchronous calls, and by extending the analysis to differentiate how these two types of calls account for remote execution time.
  • This version includes beta versions of solvers for two extended types of execution: simultaneous resource possession (SRP) and synchronous calls with blocking (SCP). These can be used at the script level.
  • This version has undergone a naming revision, simplifying names of scripts.

Download previous versions.

Releases

Latest release: 1.0.0 (June 2016)

This version can be used with Palladio Bench and SPACE4Cloud.

What's new?

  • Line now offers support for both synchronous and asynchronous calls. This is achieved by extending the transformation from LQN models to incorporate asynchronous calls, and by extending the analysis to differentiate how these two types of calls account for remote execution time.
  • This version includes beta versions of solvers for two extended types of execution: simultaneous resource possession (SRP) and synchronous calls with blocking (SCP). These can be used at the script level.
  • This version has undergone a naming revision, simplifying names of scripts.

Getting Started

Download the binaries and/or source code:

The download includes the LINE binaries, example files ready to test, and a test client to communicate with the LINE server. The binaries, for both Windows 64 bits and Linux 64 bits, require MATLAB MCR version 2013a, which can be downloaded here. You can run a simple test using the configuration and test files provided with the binary distribution.

Documentation and installation instructions can be found here.

Alternatively, download it from the SVN repository at

svn checkout svn://svn.code.sf.net/p/line-solver/code/trunk/releases/v100

Previous Releases

0.7.1 (August 2015)

Binaries: Source code:

svn checkout svn://svn.code.sf.net/p/line-solver/code/trunk/releases/v071

New features:
  • LINE now provides support for the computation of transient metrics. This includes both mean-value metrics and response-time distributions.
  • LINE is compatible with the latest release of the Palladio Bench tool. The LINE binaries now accept LQN models in .xml and .lqxo file formats.

0.7 (July 2015)

Binaries: Source code:

svn checkout svn://svn.code.sf.net/p/line-solver/code/trunk/releases/v07

New features:
  • LINE now provides initial support for the performance evaluation of BPMN collaboration diagrams. LINE reads the BPMN model in the standard BPMN XML format, augmented with timing information, and analyzes it by means of a model-to-model transformation to LQN models. Examples of how to use this feature are provided in the scripts example_BPMN_X.m included in the examples folder.
  • LINE now supports the performance evaluation of closed queueing networks described as PMIF models. LINE reads the PMIF model in the standard PMIF XML format, which it analyzes by means of a model-to-model transformation to LQN models. Examples of how to use this feature are provided in the scripts example_PMIF_X.m included in the examples folder.
  • LINE now offers the QD-AMVA solver, which has been developed to analyze queueing networks with queue-dependent processing times. This solver can be selected by setting a new configuration variable, called solver, to the value QDAMVA. The default solver is the existing fluid solver.
  • The source code in LINE has been re-structured, facilitating its extensibility, particularly to consider different input models and solvers.

0.6 (Dec 2014)

Binaries: Source code:

svn checkout svn://svn.code.sf.net/p/line-solver/code/trunk/releases/v06

New features:
  • The reliability model in LINE, called Random Environment, now has support for general (Coxian) holding times in each environmental stage. This generalizes the exponential holding times in previous versions.
  • For the intermediate software layers, LINE now computes the expected throughput. This is in addition to response times means and percentiles, already included.
  • LINE has been re-structured, offering a more compartmental architecture, separating model parsing from model solving, and performance metrics computation. This facilitates the extension of the tool to consider different abstractions.

0.5.2 (Jul 2014)

  • LINE now accepts models with Coxian processing times. The specification of the Coxian distributions is done by means of an XML file containing LQN extensions, which also includes Random Environments. Examples of these files can be found on the modelExamples folder. Notice that these distribution are specified at the level of LQN activities.
  • The computation of the response time percentiles has been fixed to compute long tails.
  • The parser is now decomposed in 2 phases that were previously mixed up: first, the parsing of the LQN model, from an LQN XML file; second, the parsing of the LQN Extensions, from a different XML file.
  • The analysis of the SEFF mean response times is now performed in a separate script.
  • Line now accepts the parallel property in the configuration file. It has 3 possible values: SEQ for sequential execution (default); JOB for parallel execution using Matlab parallel engine for batch job execution; PARFOR for parallel execution using the parfor mechanism in Matlab.
  • Line now parses and solves models with multiple PCM usage models, which in the LQN model are translated into multiple references tasks. Performance measures are computed for the different usage model/user types.
  • Line now accepts a verbose property that can be set to 1 for verbose screen output. The default is 0 which provides limited screen output.
  • The analysis of services (denoted SEFF in Palladio) has been extended to consider general probabilistic interactions among them, as when one SEFF calls several other SEFFs to provide its service.

0.5.1 (Jun 2014)

  • The main new feature in this version is the ability to compute the percentiles of the overall response time. The requested percentiles are specified in the configuration file, and the results are included in the results file.
  • LINE now accepts a sequence of connections from the clients, and only terminates after receiving the command QUIT. To close a connection the client must submit the command CLOSE. Once the connection is closed, LINE replies with the message LINE CLOSED.
  • In relation to the previous feature, a new configuration option has been added. The property connectionTimeout sets the timeout before LINE closes the current connection. The time (in seconds) is counted after the last command was received and all the outstanding models have been solved.
  • The LQN XML parser has been extended to consider more general usage models. The parser now supports LQN models with general probabilistic activity graphs. It also considers the speed factor to determine the mean service demands.

0.5 (Jun 2014)

  • This release works as a server that receives instructions to solve models, requiring a single startup to solve as many models as needed.
  • This release exploits the parallel execution of jobs on multi-core computers, thus offering significant time savings when solving many models.

0.4.1 (Dec 2013)

  • This release is designed to run batch jobs.

0.4 (Oct 2013)

This is the first release.

Resources

This page lists useful resources for developers and users of LINE.

Papers

The details of the models implemented and solved by Line can be found there.

J. F. Pérez and G. Casale, "Assessing SLA compliance from Palladio component models, in Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Management of resources and services in Cloud and Sky computing (MICAS), IEEE Press, 2013. [IEEE Xplore]

The following papers extend or use LINE for different applications.

Presentations

Latest unreleased version

Here you can access the latest features of LINE, which have not yet been released in the Releases section.

The current version under development coincides with the latest release: 1.0.0

Webcasts

Using LINE for Software Quality Analysis (Palladio and Space4Clouds)